Connie S. Evans
Originally located at the Williamson Building on Public Square in Cleveland, Ohio, since 1914, the Fourth District Federal Reserve Bank soon outgrew its space. Starting in 1919, the architectural firm of Walker and Weeks, in consultation with bank officials, began drawing up plans for a new stand-alone building to be sited at the corner of Superior Avenue and East Sixth Street. In following the early twentieth century American Renaissance style, the building mimicked the architectural design of the adjacent Group Plan (1903), which is comprised of the city's major public edifices.
In 1921, the firm of John Gill & Sons, contractors, began work on the building. Sitting on a foundation of pink granite, and clad in pinkish Georgia marble, the thirteen-story, 203-foot tall structure is reflective of the Art Deco sensibilities of the renowned sculptors and decorators who worked on its exteriors and interiors. Designed to reflect both safety and security, the building was also constructed to hold the world's largest bank vault door, which weighs one hundred short tons. Dedicated on August 23, 1923, the bank has since been accorded a designation on the National Register of Historic Places.
This photograph collection documents the construction of the building from the excavation of the site in 1921 to the completion of the structure in 1923; the pictures also provide intriguing snapshots of life in Cleveland in the early 1920s.
Pursue Posterity and ASM International
ASM International is the preeminent materials society in the world. Founded in 1913 by William Woodside, a blacksmith who worked for Studebaker, it was originally dubbed The Steel Treaters Club. The society was formed as a means for blacksmiths and other in the steel industry to exchange ideas. Initially the focus of the society was exclusively devoted to steel treating but through the years they expanded their boundaries beyond metals and brought all engineered materials into the society's scope, including composites, plastics and ceramics.
Throughout this century-long evolution, Cleveland has remained the home of ASM's International headquarters, where visitors are dazzled by the awe-inspiring geodesic dome that hovers majestically over the Society's office building. Today the Society boasts more than 80 chapters in a dozen countries with a membership totalling 30,000 materials scientists and engineers. This web exhibit was created to commemorate the 100th anniversary of ASM International. Materials for this web exhibit were selected from the ASM International archives and span much of its illustrious history.
ASM International History
ASM International is known around the world for the depth and breadth of the materials knowledge it disseminates through books, databases, videos, and a myriad of online products. However, very few know about the Origins of this global organization that began a hundred years ago as a group of heat treaters in Detroit who decided to pool their knowledge in an effort to make better automobiles.
Chet A. Walker
The T.W. Grogan Company was formed in June, 1926 by Thomas William Grogan who visualized an opportunity for a progressive building management organization in Greater Cleveland. During its history, the T.W. Grogan Company specialized in building management, financing, brokerage, mortgage loans, appraisals, and special services.
In addition to several smaller properties throughout the Cleveland area and the rest of the country, some of the prominent and notable Cleveland landmark buildings managed at one time by the T.W. Grogan Company include the Hanna Building, the Euclid Arcade, the Osborn Building, the Leader Building, the Rockefeller building, and the Carnegie Medical, Bolton Square Hotel, and the Cedar-Glen Apartment buildings.
A small real-estate operation started by Grogan in a one-room office eventually grew to more than 300 properties in Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, and New Jersey. T.W. Grogan had its main offices in the Hanna Building, which they had purchased from the Hanna family in 1958. By the time of the company's closing in 1999, in addition to the Hanna and Osborn Buildings, the T.W. Grogan Company owned and managed several parking lots in downtown Cleveland, the Aurora Commons office building and shopping center in Aurora, and The Phelps Townhouse, a 140-unit exclusive downtown Cincinnati apartment complex.
The Burtis, Patterson, Sargent Company was formed in 1890 by former associates of Sherwin-Williams. In 1895, Benjamin Patterson, Sr. bought out his partners and the firm thereafter did business as The Patterson-Sargent Company. Operating under the logo "B.P.S.: Best Paint Sold," the firm manufactured paint, lacquers, stains and vanishes from their building at 1325 East 38th Street, at Hamilton Avenue. BPS was purchased by H.K. Porter Company of Pittsburgh in 1959.
About the Photos
The first set of images found here were bound together in an album discovered in the former Patterson-Sargent plant, now owned by State Chemical Solutions. They date from November 1943 to August 1946 and show expansion of the existing plant and construction of the railroad spur that would eventually run through it. They also show employees at work in the warehouse and loading area.
In 2015, Ruth Fiordalis, granddaughter of Benjamin Patterson, generously lent Cleveland State two albums from the company, which expanded and overlapped somewhat in coverage with the State Chemical collection, and they have been added here.
Founded in 1911 by the five Zucker brothers, the State Chemical Manufacturing Co. (today known as State Chemical Solutions, a division of State Industrial Products) has been producing industrial cleaning products as part of Cleveland's industrial landscape for over a century.
The company has occupied four different locations in its long history, three of which are documented in this collection. The first was at East 4th Street. In 1913, it moved to 2162 East 2nd Street. By 1927, the company had grown so much that it moved into a newly-constructed plant and warehouse on East Superior Street.
State Chemical continued to grow, eventually expanding into the Superior Avenue Baptist Church next door and purchasing a warehouse on Hamilton Avenue. This location became the company headquarters in 1966, and eventually expanded to cover an entire block. Today, State Chemical continues to manufacture and sell industrial cleaning products from its headquarters at 3100 Hamilton Avenue.
Erin J. Bell
Founded in 1894 as a trolley and bicycle frame manufacturer, the Parrish and Bingham Co. quickly grew to become an important part of Cleveland's expanding industrial economy. Located at the corner of Madison Avenue and West 106th Street (41.476758,-81.759833), the Parrish and Bingham plant changed ownership several times, first in 1923, when it was merged with Detroit Pressed Steel Co. to form Midland Steel Products Co., a forerunner to Midland-Ross.
By the 1930s, with an expanded line of products that included steel automotive frames and axle housings for cars, trucks and buses; the Madison Avenue plant became one of the central suppliers of automotive manufacturing components in the country, and the largest producer of automotive frames.
Located in Cleveland, Ohio and formed in 1946, Clark Cable Corporation was a manufacturer of various automotive electrical accessories that were sold to a wide range of suppliers within the automobile industry. The company acquired Proof Machine & Brass Foundry at its inception, and this began a long series of future acquisitions and diversifications that complemented and extended the reach of the work being done at Clark Cable.
In its early years, the company moved several times. It began life on East 72nd street, then moving to Berea Road for just two years, and finally moving to West 32nd street, its home for the remainder of its duration as a company. During the early-mid 1950s, Clark Cable formed relations with the US military, and supplied various parts to them.
Clark Cable Corporation, in its later years known as Clark Consolidated Industries, was purchased by Wilcox & Gibbs, and its doors were closed in 1989.
Carolyn L. Hufford and Jonathan Herr
Native Americans and then early settlers tapped sugar maple trees for the sap that was then boiled down to a sweet syrup consistency. About forty gallons of sap are required to produce one gallon of maple syrup. The harvest season for maple sap is in late winter/early spring when the "sap is running." Sap is collected until the buds on the tree begin to swell.
In northeast Ohio, the first Maple Festival was officially held in Chardon in 1926. In 1931, the City of Burton erected the "first municipal maple house in the country." The proclaimed "Log Cabin Sugar Camp" was located in Burton Park.
Local promoters saw the opportunity to create an event that would attract people longing to get out of the house after a long winter indoors. The idea was to serve a breakfast feast of pancakes, sausage and maple syrup to crowds of people.
About the Collection:
This collection of photographs was largely taken from the Cleveland Press "Maple Sirup" aka "Syrup" file. The Cleveland Press collection of photographs was donated to the Cleveland State University in 1984, after the Cleveland Press stopped production. The pictures represented here date from the 1920’s through the 1970’s, showing various aspects of maple sugaring production from throughout northeast Ohio, notably Burton, Chardon, and Geauga County.
Maya Shumyatcher and Vern Morrison
Held in the summers of 1936 and 1937, the Great Lakes Exposition was sprawled over 135 acres of land near Cleveland's lakefront from W. 3rd St. to E. 20th St.
Organized to celebrate the centennial year of the corporation of the city of Cleveland, the Great Lakes Exposition sought to highlight “the material, social and cultural progress which has been achieved in the Great Lakes Region in the past 100 year” and to “indicate the paths of progress for the future.”1
The Exposition featured hundreds of attractions, including rides, sideshows, botanical gardens, cafes, and more. In 1937, the Expo added an aquacade with water ballet shows featuring celebrities Johnny Weissmuller and Eleanor Holm.
Some of the Cleveland/Northeast Ohio industries represented at the Expo included the White Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, Sherwin Williams, not to mention appearances by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.'s ever-popular blimp.
The Special Collections Department of the Michael Schwartz Library at Cleveland State University makes available a variety of resources that document the history and events of the Exposition. Many of the materials, including 150+ photographs and color postcards have been digitized and are available for viewing online.
So take a step back in time and enjoy the sights of what was, without question, one of the most remarkable and beloved events in Cleveland history… line.
1Great Lakes Exposition Official Souvenir Guide, 1936.
Viktor Schreckengost, the "American DaVinci" was a Cleveland artist, teacher and industrial designer who reshaped the field of American design and influenced generations of students. Mr. Schreckengost combined artistic and functional brilliance in his designs for product ranging widely from pedal cars, printing presses, and kitchen appliances to furniture, dinnerware, and toys. He also created hundreds of watercolors, sculptures, and decorative ceramics including the iconic "Jazz Bowl."
Mr. Schreckengost founded the first industrial design program in the nation at the Cleveland Institute of Art. For more than 70 years, he instructed nearly 1,000 students, who have produced billions of dollars of successful products for American industry.
His honors include a Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects. At age 100, he received the National Medal of the Arts from President George W. Bush during a White House ceremony. Viktor Schreckengost passed away in 2008 at age 101.
The Schreckengost Collection, dating back to the 1920s, includes job folders with correspondence, sketches, blueprints, and contracts with other prominent firms in the Cleveland area who participated in a particular job. Companies and organizations with which Viktor was associated during his career are included in the archives. The collection is housed in Special Collections at the Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University. See the Schreckengost Collection Finding Aid or read the brochure.
This web exhibit showcases images of buildings, people and brands documenting the history of the Cleveland brewing industry through the 19th and 20th centuries. Images from this exhibit can be found in the Cleveland Press Collection located in the Special Collections located in the Michael Schwartz Library at Cleveland State University.
Fermented grains have been a staple of humanity since it was first documented in Sumerian civilization and have followed civilized culture wherever it roams. Some have even speculated that human cultures shifted from hunter-gatherers to agriculture to have enough grains available for fermentation. It is important to recognize the roles fermented grains have played throughout the millennia for human cultures and the diversity found in beer producing regions around the globe.
The story of Cleveland breweries is as old as the city itself. Small brewery operations followed settlers to the area and established themselves near the Cuyahoga River. Before refrigeration, a period of local taverns flourished, where beer was produced locally and drank locally, creating a diverse entrepreneurial marketplace for immigrants arriving to the area from Ireland, Germany, Czechoslovakia and other beer producing regions of Europe. Competition was fierce and thirsts were mighty in Cleveland.
By 1910, there were 26 breweries operating in Cleveland competing for market share. Competition drove breweries towards consolidation and the pursuit of larger and larger markets, most notably the Cleveland & Sandusky Brewing Company. This all came to an end with the passage of the Volstead Act in 1919. Prohibition forced breweries out of operation or into production of near beer and soft drinks.
After the Temperance movement ended in 1933, several Cleveland area breweries started producing beer including the Standard Brewing Company, Pilsener Brewing Company, Leisy Brewing Company, and the Brewing Corporation of America later renamed the Carling Brewing Company. Brands like Black Label and Red Cap, Erin Brew, Black Forest, Leisy’s and P.O.C. were standards at picnics and ballgames in Cleveland for decades.
Over time though, it is sad to say that all the original Cleveland breweries slowly buckled under the pressure from national competition through the 1960s and 70s, with the last of the breweries ending operations in 1984 at the old Carling plant.
…but the story didn’t end there. In 1988, the Conway brothers launched the Great Lakes Brewing Company located in the old Market Tavern near the West Side Market in Ohio City. So after a long wait, quality local beer has finally returned to the City of Cleveland.
Industrial Rayon Corporation in Cleveland manufactured rayon yarn, the world’s first synthetic fiber, which found use in items ranging from undergarments to tires. Rayon production using an innovative continuous spinning process at the West Boulevard plant and the Painesville plant reached high levels during WWII. The company weathered the Depression, labor strikes and environmental complaints, but in post-war years demand for rayon fell. The company became a division of Midland-Ross named IRC Fibers.
This collection of photographs and other materials was inspired by the many employees of "the Rayon" who smiled as they recounted memories of their employment at the Painesville plant. It was spurred on by the donation of four scrapbooks compiled by Rayon hourly employee Ed Rabbitt to Painesville's Morley Library.
The Great Lakes Industrial History Center is a collection of digital resources highlighting the history and development of the Great Lakes as a vital transportation network and an important component in the production and shipping of much of North America's industrial output. These resources also cover some of the contributions and innovations of the leaders in business and industry who made this development possible.
The following images are scenes taken from historic stereoview cards showing Cleveland and the wider Great Lakes industrial region and converted into 3-D images.
To be able to view the full effect of the 3-D renderings, anaglyph 3-D glasses (red/cyan) are required. href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaglyphs>Find out more about anaglyph images from Wikipedia.