To what extent do voluntary non-profit associations have the right (a) to deny admission to membership, and (b) to expel existing members? Space does not permit discussion of all the ramifications of these two questions and some limitation of scope becomes necessary. The theme selected has been the "civil rights" aspect of the problem; more specifically, the right, in certain areas, to be protected against racial and religious discrimination, and the privilege to exercise the ordinary rights of citizenship, such as the right of free speech, of petition, of voting, of resort to the courts, and to employment.
Robert S. Pasley, Exclusion and Expulsion from Non-Profit Organizations - The Civil Rights Aspect, 14 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 203 (1965)