The inadequate avenues of direct relief available to those groups that have been discriminated against have been a cause of frustration and a source of alienation leading in certain instances to violence. The inability of our legal system to assure equal job opportunity has contravened the very essence of the thirteenth amendment of the United States Constitution prohibiting slavery.
Avery S. Friedman,
Attacking Discrimination through the Thirteenth Amendment,
21 Clev. St. L. Rev.
available at http://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/clevstlrev/vol21/iss1/16