An argument is developed that the purported collectivism in Japanese society generates stronger social bonds in Japan than in the more individualistic United States, which might then explain the lower level of deviance often found in Japan. We test this using survey data from samples of Japanese and American college students on measures of deviance and social bonds. Results indicate that Japanese students engage in significantly less deviance than Americans, and although variables from Hirschi's (1969) social control theory behave similarly across cultures as predictors of deviance, the theory failed to account for the lower level of deviance among Japanese.
Fukushima, Miyuki; Sharp, Susan F.; and Kobayashi, Emiko, "Bond to Society, Collectivism, and Conformity: A Comparative Study of Japanese and American College Students." (2009). Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications. Paper 101.
This is an Author’s Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Deviant Behavior, July 2009, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/01639620802296212.