Journal of Health and Social Behavior
This study examines the question of gender-equivalent outcomes of mental health and social behavior in the context of crowding stress. It tests the hypothesis that gender will influence the exhibition of stress outcomes resulting from exposure to high-density living environments, with women displaying internalized responses and men responding with externalized styles. Expanding on the types of gender-appropriate disorders examined in this area of research, I selected depression, aggression, and withdrawal as gender-specific disorders based on theory and prior research. Multilevel analyses of data from a survey of Toronto residents indicate that, while the effects of household density are conditioned by gender, support for the existence of gender-equivalent outcomes is mixed. While women living in crowded homes are more likely to be depressed, men exposed to high-density living environments do not report increased aggression. However, men report higher levels of withdrawal, and some males respond with both aggression and withdrawal.
Regoeczi, Wendy C., "Crowding in Context: An Examination of the Differential Responses of Men and Women to High-Density Living Environments" (2008). Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications. Paper 125.
(c) 2008 Sage Publications, Inc.