For all of these reasons, the President issued an Executive Order on September 15, 1986, designed to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Consistent with the President's views, it focuses on helping, not punishing, drug users. Time does not permit me to go into each of the Order's provisions in great detail. I would, however, like to offer an overview of the major provisions of the Order. In deference to the occasion, I will concentrate on the provisions of the Order which authorize the use of drug testing to achieve that objective. The Executive Order calls upon "agency heads," the chief executive officers of our government, to develop five-point plans for achieving the objective of a drug-free federal workplace.
Robert M. Kruger, Executive Order 12,564: Toward a Drug-Free Federal Workforce, 2 J.L. & Health 15 (1987-1988)