At one time, if a physician could find no objective evidence of disability, an employee usually lost his workmen's compensation case. If the x-ray and the electroencephalogram were negative, if no muscle spasm were present, if the diminished sensation to pinprick followed no anatomical pattern-if the doctors could find nothing in the examination to substantiate the employee's complaints of pain-the decision invariably found the employee was malingering. Compensation was denied. Toward the middle of this century, psychiatry began to offer some explanations.
Donald W. Loria, Psychiatrist in Workmen's Compensation Field, 17 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 19 (1968)
Workmen's Compensation (Symposium)