Social vs. Self-Directed Events among Japanese and Americans
Cultural expectations provide meaning to human perceptions of who-does-what-towhom-where. However, the effects of actions directed at oneself have been much less systematically studied. This article replicates the American factorial design of Britt and Heise (1992) in a Japanese setting. The analysis demonstrates both cultural similarities and differences in psychological principles for attaching meanings to self-directed events. Cross-cultural differences in creating a sense of self-fulfillment or self-actualization are expressed through emotional labeling and trait attribution.
Smith, Herman W. and Francis, Linda E., "Social vs. Self-Directed Events among Japanese and Americans" (2005). Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications. 49.
Herman W Smith and Linda E. Francis. (2005). Social vs. Self-Directed Events among Japanese and Americans. Social Forces, 84(2), 821-830.