Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the town of North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada in the spring of 2001. The outbreak left thousands of people sick including about 50 people hospitalized. The source of the outbreak was from the city's surface water treatment plant. The Sedimentation Contact Unit did not satisfactorily remove suspended solids from the source water, resulting in filter breakthrough. Contaminated water was released into the distribution system causing the outbreak. Communication breakdown and confusion exacerbated the situation, extending the duration of the outbreak. The outbreak prompted the province to change the way it regulated municipal utilities of water and wastewater.
Jameson, P. B., Hung, Y., Kuo, C. Y., and Bosela, P. A. (2008). "Cryptosporidium Outbreak (Water Treatment Failure): North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Spring 2001." J.Perform.Constr.Facil., 22(5), 342-347.