Multivalent Interaction-Based Carbohydrate Biosensors for Signal Amplification
Multivalent interaction between boronic acids immobilized on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor surface and the carbohydrates modified Au-nanoparticle (AuNP) has been demonstrated for the development of a sensitive carbohydrate biosensor. Briefly, a boronic acid-containing polymer (boropolymer) as multivalent carbohydrate receptor was oriented immobilized on the cysteamine coated electrode through isourea bond formation. Carbohydrates were conjugated to AuNPs to generate a multivalent carbohydrates moiety to amplify the response signal. Thus, the binding of the carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs to the boropolymer surface are multivalent which could simultaneously increase the binding affinity and specificity. We systematically studied the binding between five carbohydrates conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer. Our studies show that the associate constant (Ka) was in the order of fucosecarbohydrate analytes. Furthermore, the multivalent binding between carbohydrates and boronic acids are reversible and allow the regeneration of boropolymer surface by using 1M acetic acid so as to sequentially capture and release the carbohydrate analytes.