Date of Award


Degree Type



Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

First Advisor

Sparks, Kenneth

Subject Headings

Global Positioning System, iPod (Digital music player), Energy metabolism -- Measurement -- Equipment and supplies, Running, Garmin Forerunner GPS, Nike +iPod, Energy expenditure, Overground running


Accurate measurement of energy expenditure, distance, and speed are desired by many runners. There are many commercially available devices for measuring these components in overground running. Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to compare the accuracy of distance, speed, and energy expenditure of overground running with two different devices: the Garmin Forerunner 405CX GPS and the Nike + iPod. Methods: Subjects consisted of 15 runners recruited from the Cleveland running community. The subjects were composed of 9 males and 6 females ranging in age from 18-55 years old. After a quarter mile calibration, the subjects ran a 3 mile measured course on an outdoor path. All devices were started simultaneously and compared. Inferential statistics (one-way ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Results: A significant difference for energy expenditure was seen between the GPS and indirect calorimeter (p=.007) and also between the GPS and the Nike (p=.008). A significant difference in distance was seen between the Nike and the measured distance (p=.0001) and the GPS to the Nike (p=.0001). Conclusion: The GPS unit can be an accurate measuring tool for distance and the Nike can be accurate for measuring energy expenditure in overground running