Date of Award


Degree Type




First Advisor

Doane, Lisa

Subject Headings

Interpersonal relations -- Psychological aspects, Psychic trauma, Cervix uteri -- Cancer, Medical screening, interpersonal trauma trauma types trauma cervical cancer screening Pap smear screening adherence barriers to screening womens health gynecological health


Cervical cancer can be prevented or treated if the recommended gynecological care is obtained. However, there are many barriers to cervical cancer screening attendance, potentially including interpersonal trauma. Sexual assault has been consistently linked to the inadequate use of or nonattendance to routine Pap smears. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical assault may also lead to avoidance of cervical cancer screening. Vulnerability, involving an absence of control and being overpowered by another individual, is a common factor across interpersonal trauma types and may also occur during a Pap smear. The similarities between interpersonal trauma and cervical cancer screening and potential loss of trust and social resources stemming from the traumatic event may lead to nonattendance to the procedure. A survey including information on demographics, trauma history, and gynecological care was completed by 329 women between the ages of 18 and 65 attending and/or working for either Cleveland State University (CSU) or Western Michigan University (WMU). Attitudes relating to trust and interpersonal relations from the Pap Smear Beliefs Questionnaire were examined (PSBQ). Interpersonal trauma was found to not predict non-routine cervical cancer screening attendance. In addition, interpersonal trauma was found to not predict distrust toward the healthcare provider, feeling on edge during the screening, feeling violated during the screening, or preference of a female provider for the Pap smear

Included in

Psychology Commons