Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2013

Publication Title

ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law


International Criminal Court (ICC), ad hoc tribunals, international tribunals, regional tribunals, hybrid tribunals, international law


Over the past two decades, various mechanisms of international and regional justice have developed. The proliferation of international courts, hybrid tribunals, domestic war crimes chambers, truth commissions, civil compensation commissions, and other tools of accountability has sparked an academic debate over the usefulness of any such mechanism for redressing past violations of international law. This Article briefly discusses some of the best-known mechanisms of international, national, and "hybrid" justice, and assesses their role in light of the creation and existence of the International Criminal Court (ICC), the only permanent tribunal in international criminal law. Does international justice have a place for ad hoc tribunals other than the ICC? With the relative successes of the ICC, will there be a need for additional ad hoc tribunals in the future? Or, will the ICC replace the need for any additional justice mechanisms and thus foreclose any future discussions over the establishment of ad hoc international, regional, or hybrid tribunals?