Cooperative Regulation of the Activity of Factor Xa Within Prothrombinase by Discrete Amino Acid Regions From Factor VA Heavy Chain
The prothrombinase complex catalyzes the activation of prothrombin to alpha-thrombin. We have repetitively shown that amino acid region (695)DYDY(698) from the COOH terminus of the heavy chain of factor Va regulates the rate of cleavage of prothrombin at Arg(271) by prothrombinase. We have also recently demonstrated that amino acid region (334)DY(335) is required for the optimal activity of prothrombinase. To assess the effect of these six amino acid residues on cofactor activity, we created recombinant factor Va molecules combining mutations at amino acid regions 334-335 and 695-698 as follows: factor V(3K) ((334)DY(335) --> KF and (695)DYDY(698) --> KFKF), factor V(KF/4A) ((334)DY(335) --> KF and (695)DYDY(698) --> AAAA), and factor V(6A) ((334)DY(335) --> AA and (695)DYDY(698) --> AAAA). The recombinant factor V molecules were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Factor Va(3K), factor Va(K4/4A), and factor Va(6A) had reduced affinity for factor Xa, when compared to the affinity of the wild-type molecule (factor Va(Wt)) for the enzyme. Prothrombinase assembled with saturating concentrations of factor Va(3K) had a 6-fold reduced second-order rate constant for prothrombin activation compared to the value obtained with prothrombinase assembled with factor Va(Wt), while prothrombinase assembled with saturating concentrations of factor Va(KF/4A) and factor Va(6A) had approximately 1.5-fold reduced second-order rate constants. Overall, the data demonstrate that amino acid region 334-335 together with amino acid region 695-698 from factor Va heavy chain are part of a cooperative mechanism within prothrombinase regulating cleavage and activation of prothrombin by factor Xa.