Crime & Delinquency
There appears to be general consensus in law enforcement circles that less-than-lethal weapons are effective in reducing police-citizen killings, but this “common wisdom” has not been subject to systematic empirical analysis. Considering a large sample of U.S. cities for 1990, this article examines the association between the availability to the police of various types of less-than-lethal weapons and general and race-specific justifiable homicide rates. The analysis produces no evidence that police killing rates are affected by the availability of less-than-lethal weapons.
Bailey, William C., "Less-Than-Lethal Weapons and Police-Citizen Killings in U.S. Urban Areas" (1996). Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications. 63.
Bailey, W. C. (1996). Less-Than-Lethal Weapons and Police-Citizen Killings in U.S. Urban Areas. Crime & Delinquency, 42(4), 535-552. doi:10.1177/0011128796042004003
(c) 1996 Sage Publications