Use of Solid Wastes As Construction Materials

Document Type

Contribution to Books

Publication Date


Publication Title

Handbook of Environment and Waste Management: Volume 2: Land and Groundwater Pollution Control


© 2014 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. The use of solid wastes as construction materials is one way to address the global issue of sustainability and climate change. Many researchers and scientists have made significant contribution to turn wastes into useful resources. This chapter summarizes the publications of researchers who spent years of intensive effort to investigate certain important aspects of solid wastes utilization in construction. The solidwastes include, fly ash, timber industrial ash (TIA), palm oil fuel ash, expanded coal slag (ECS), foamed aggregate, waste styrofoam, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. The chemical composition, physical and engineering properties of the solid wastes and their effect on the performance of concrete, the most widely used construction material is briefly covered. Sustainable and viable options for infrastructure development are explored and discussed. The controlled density pervious lightweight concrete with high porosity allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass through it, thereby reducing the surface runofffrom going straight into the drain. The recharging of water into designated retention ponds are designed to minimize the fluctuation of groundwater levels. The study is to establish an economical method for construction on problematic soils especially on peat. The pervious low-carbon media with TIA has been studied on its potential for harvested rainwater treatment. The compressive strength development and water absorption of ECS concrete were presented in the ECS mix design nomograph that can be used to predict the dry density, compressive strength, and water absorption of various percentages of ECS concrete. The structural performance of reinforced concrete beams containing recycled crushed foamed concrete fine aggregate (RFA) is briefly covered. The cement industry contributes about 5% to global CO2 emissions from the calcination process of limestone and combustion of fuels in the kiln.A model of CO2 uptake by biomass silica foamed concrete is proposed as a potential mitigation strategy against CO2 emission. The proposed foamed concrete absorbs CO2 42.7% faster than the normal concrete. Successful deployment could contribute toward sustainable development while benefiting from the carbon credits.