International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol 19, Iss 2683, p 2683 (2022)
Rainwater harvesting is considered one of the most important water resources in the Palestinian countryside. In this research, the study area chosen for the study was Yatta town in Hebron city. 75 water samples were collected from 74 cisterns in a number of neighborhoods in Yatta, and a structured household survey was conducted with the same households where the water samples were collected. Statistical analysis was made using the SPSS software. An analysis for the samples was made using ICP-MS to test the existence of a number of heavy metals, namely Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. The results were compared with the WHO and Palestinian limits for drinking water quality. Considering the metals Mn, Co, Cu and Cd, neither of the samples exceeded any of the two limits. For the metals, Pb, Cr, and Ni, two samples exceeded both limits. For the metal, Zn, one sample exceeded the WHO limit only. Sources of pollution by heavy metals of the harvested rainwater were identified by means of a questionnaire distributed to the households. The results showed that except for nickel and the water collection surface of the cistern factor, there is no direct relationship between the factors and activities that may contribute to contaminate harvested rainwater with heavy metals and the existence of heavy metals beyond local and international limits. Based on the questionnaire and literature: Possible sources of lead and zinc are the roof, storage tanks, distribution systems and plumbing; possible sources of chromium are road dust, asbestos brakes and anthropogenic activities occurring around the house; possible source of nickel is leaching from metals in contact with harvested rainwater such as pipes and fittings which are used to collect the harvested rainwater. In addition, an assessment of the potential health risks due to contamination of the harvested rainwater by heavy metals was made for all the samples that exceeded either WHO limit or the Palestinian limit or both. The Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) and the Health Risk Index (HRI) were calculated. The assessment was made for both adults and children. The results showed that all the samples are considered safe (HRI < 1), which means that there are no potential health risks for consumers.
Anabtawi, F.; Mahmoud, N.; Al-Khatib, I.A.; Hung, Y.-T. Heavy Metals in Harvested Rainwater Used for Domestic Purposes in Rural Areas: Yatta Area, Palestine as a Case Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052683
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