Optimization Processes of Biodiesel Production from Pig and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Seeds Blend Oil Using Alternative Catalysts from Waste Biomass

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Contribution to Books

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Handbook of Environmental Engineering: Waste Treatment in the Biotechnology, Agricultural and Food Industries: Volume 1


This study tested the suitability of solid residue (CaO) derived from the mixture of waste biomass as catalysts in transesterification conversion of the blend of neem oilseed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with rendered pig fat. Blending was done in the ratio of neem oil:pig fat oil (v/v) as 10:90 (NO10), 20:80 (NO20), 30:70 (NO30), 40:60 (NO40), 50:50 (NO50), 60:40 (NO60), 70:30 (NO70), 80:20 (NO80), and 90:10 (NO90), respectively. Optimization of transesterification process parameters of methanolysis of CaO catalyst for the synthesis of 60:40 of mixed oil biodiesel (MOB) was carried out using central composite design that generates 30 experimental runs.

Results showed low viscous oil at blend of 60:40. The predicted MOB yield of 98.05 (wt. %) at catalyst amount of 2.179 (g), reaction time of 57.45 min, reaction temperature of 59.91 °C, and MeOH/OMR of 5.9:1 (mL/mL) was validated in triplicate, and an average MOB yield of 98.03 (wt. %) was obtained. Results of XRD analysis indicated CaO as the predominant constituent element obtained from the mixture of calcined palm kernel shell husk (CPKSH) and calcined fermented kola nut husk (CFKNH). The qualities of MOB produced were within the biodiesel standard.