Composting Processes for Disposal of Municipal and Agricultural Solid Wastes

Document Type

Contribution to Books

Publication Date


Publication Title

Handbook of Environmental Engineering: Solid Waste Engineering and Management: Volume 1


Various composting processes have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of pollution concerns and the need of environmentally sound technologies for handling and disposal of municipal and agricultural solid wastes. Composting is extremely significant in terms of its economic viability, ease of operation, ability to recycle nutrients, and waste minimization. This chapter introduces (1) the composting process types: open on-site composting, aerated-turned composting, aerated static pile composting, enclosed mechanical composting, vermicomposting, thermophilic composting, and two-stage in-bin composting; (2) process control parameters: microorganisms, temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, C:N ratio, and particle size; (3) operational steps: pretreatment preparation, composting-digestion, curing, finishing, and storage; (4) process control; (5) pathogen survival; (6) cost considerations; (7) compost stability and maturity; (8) marketing of compost; (9) compost utilization; and (10) process design considerations and design criteria. Finally, several successful composting schemes, practices, and legal requirements currently in use around the world are also highlighted. A complete two-stage in-bin composting process system is designed and illustrated for handling and disposal of dead animals, poultry, and fish generated from agricultural facilities.