Journal of Biomechanics
The purpose of this study was to determine the cause and effect relationship between tibial internal rotation and pronation of the foot during walking and heel–toe running. This would allow predictions of orthotic effectiveness in reducing knee pain related to excessive internal tibial rotation. Kinematic and force plate data were collected from twenty subjects performing ten running and ten walking trials across a force plate. Using a least-squares algorithm, attitude matrices for each segment in each frame were obtained and the angular velocity vector of the tibia was calculated. The intersegmental moment at the ankle was calculated from ground reaction force and kinematic data, and the power flow from foot to tibia associated with axial tibial rotation was calculated. In walking, all subjects exhibited a clear power flow from tibia to foot during most of the stance phase, indicating that the foot was following the body. This suggests that the use of foot orthoses to reduce knee pain associated with tibial rotation during walking will not be successful. During running, power flow was also mainly proximal to distal, but there were brief periods of opposite power flow. There was more variability between subjects during running, with five subjects having large distal to proximal power flow peaks. These observations may explain and support previous work that has found variable clinical effects of orthoses between patients.
Bellchamber, T. L., and van, d. B., 2000, "Contributions of Proximal and Distal Moments to Axial Tibial Rotation during Walking and Running," Journal of Biomechanics, 33(11) pp. 1397-1403.
NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Biomechanics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 11, (11-01-2000); 10.1016/S0021-9290(00)00113-5