Foot and Ankle International
The purpose of this study was to quantify movement coupling at the ankle during the stance phase of running using bone-mounted markers. Intracortical bone pins with reflective marker triads were inserted under standard local anaesthesia into the calcaneus and the tibia of five healthy male subjects. The three-dimensional rotations were determined using a joint coordinate system approach. Movement coupling was observed in all test subjects and occurred in phases with considerable individual differences. Between the shoe and the calcaneus coupling increased after midstance which suggested that the test shoes provided more coupling for inversion than for eversion. Movement coupling between calcaneus and tibia was higher in the first phase (from heel strike to midstance) compared with the second phase (from midstance to take-off). This finding is in contrast to previous in-vitro studies but may be explained by the higher vertical loads of the present in-vivo study. Thus, movement coupling measured at the bone level changed throughout the stance phase of running and was found to be far more complex than a simple mitered joint or universal joint model.
Stacoff, A., Nigg, B. M., Reinschmidt, C., 2000, "Movement Coupling at the Ankle during the Stance Phase of Running," Foot & Ankle International, 21(3) pp. 232-239.