Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Recent data highlight that competitive skiers face a high risk of injuries especially during off-balance jump landing maneuvers in downhill skiing. The purpose of the present study was to develop a musculo-skeletal modeling and simulation approach to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between a perturbed landing position, i.e., joint angles and trunk orientation, and the peak force in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during jump landing. A two-dimensional musculo-skeletal model was developed and a baseline simulation was obtained reproducing measurement data of a reference landing movement. Based on the baseline simulation, a series of perturbed landing simulations (n=1000) was generated. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between peak ACL force and the perturbed landing posture. Increased backward lean, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion as well as an asymmetric position were related to higher peak ACL forces during jump landing. The orientation of the trunk of the skier was identified as the most important predictor accounting for 60% of the variance of the peak ACL force in the simulations. Teaching of tactical decisions and the inclusion of exercise regimens in ACL injury prevention programs to improve trunk control during landing motions in downhill skiing was concluded.
Heinrich, D., van den Bogert, A. J., and Nachbauer, W., 2014, "Relationship between Jump Landing Kinematics and Peak ACL Force during a Jump in Downhill Skiing: A Simulation Study," Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(3) pp. e180-e187.
This is the accepted version of the following article: Heinrich, D., van den Bogert, A. J., and Nachbauer, W., 2014, "Relationship between Jump Landing Kinematics and Peak ACL Force during a Jump in Downhill Skiing: A Simulation Study," Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(3) pp. e180-e187, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.12120/abstract