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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology


In alpine skiing, estimation of the joint moments acting onto the skier is essential to quantify the loading of the skier during turning maneuvers. In the present study, a novel forward dynamics optimization framework is presented to estimate the joint moments acting onto the skier incorporating a three dimensional musculoskeletal model (53 kinematic degrees of freedom, 94 muscles). Kinematic data of a professional skier performing a turning maneuver were captured and used as input data to the optimization framework. In the optimization framework, the musculoskeletal model of the skier was applied to track the experimental data of a skier and to estimate the underlying joint moments of the skier at the hip, knee and ankle joints of the outside and inside leg as well as the lumbar joint. During the turning maneuver the speed of the skier was about 14 m/s with a minimum turn radius of about 16 m. The highest joint moments were observed at the lumbar joint with a maximum of 1.88 Nm/kg for lumbar extension. At the outside leg, the highest joint moments corresponded to the hip extension moment with 1.27 Nm/kg, the knee extension moment with 1.02 Nm/kg and the ankle plantarflexion moment with 0.85 Nm/kg. Compared to the classical inverse dynamics analysis, the present framework has four major advantages. First, using a forward dynamic optimization framework the underlying kinematics of the skier as well as the corresponding ground reaction forces are dynamically consistent. Second, the present framework can cope with incomplete data (i.e., without ground reaction force data). Third, the computation of the joint moments is less sensitive to errors in the measurement data. Fourth, the computed joint moments are constrained to stay within the physiological limits defined by the musculoskeletal model.


This work was supported by the EU through the INTERREG program.




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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.