Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education


College of Education and Human Services

First Advisor

Hampton, Frederick

Subject Headings



In the United States, children between the ages of five and eighteen spend up to 85 percent of their time out of school. After the school day ends, working parents of school-age children and youth need to secure adequate after-school care. During after school hours, between the hours of 3 p.m. and 7 p.m., 19 percent of violent offenses committed by juveniles occur (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010). On the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2015) the average eighth-grade minority student performs at about the level of the average fourth-grade white student. These data indicate that the best use of time after school involves closing the achievement gap and providing a haven for school-age children and youth (Durlak & Weissberg, 2007). The literature notes mixed opinions concerning the impact of extended learning time in the form of after-school programs. Interested stakeholders believe that, despite the inconsistent findings of the effect of after-school programs on academics and student behavior, after-school programs can narrow the achievement gap through academic and social support, promote physical fitness, and offer refuge for children and youth. Researchers believe that these varied results may stem from the need for improved research designs and a determination of which children benefit the most from participation in after-school programs (Riggs & Greenberg, 2004). This study addressed the need for extended learning time in the form of after-school programs in urban schools. It sought to evaluate the effect of participation in school-based after-school programs on the academic and social behaviors of elementary and middle school students in an urban school district. It used an ex-post facto research design and included after-school participation, Ohio Achievement Assessment data in reading and mathematics, suspensions, school attendance and demographics including race, gender, age, disability, and English proficiency as variables. Participants included students in grades three through eight from two schools in an urban district. The researcher analyzed data to compare participants in an after-school program to non-participants according to the variables mentioned above. The results of this study showed that after-school programs academically and socially benefit urban elementary and middle school students.

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