Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education


Counseling, Administration, Supervision and Adult Learning

First Advisor

Stead, Graham

Subject Headings



Difficulties in career decision-making are among the most prevalent academic and vocational problems (Amir & Gati, 2006; Osipow, 1999; Tagay, 2014). Many college students, including Veterans, struggle with the decisions they must make within higher education and while transitioning between school and work (Mau, 2004). In recognizing career decision-making difficulties, it is imperative to focus on the student Veteran population, as cultural factors have an influence on one’s career development and career decision-making processes (Mau, 2004; Tagay, 2014). Additionally, military culture is little understood and additional exploration of unique military factors could lead to a better understanding of Veterans’ problems in career decision-making (Vacchi, 2012). The current study is one of the first to examine the relationships between career decision-making difficulties and demographics based in military culture for Veteran students in the United States. Utilizing the taxonomy developed by Gati and colleagues (1996), the relationship between career decision-making difficulties, as measured by the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ; Gati, Krausz, & Osipow, 1996) and the demographic variable of age, and the cultural factors of level of deployment and combat experience were examined utilizing a multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA). The sample consisted of 209 (143 Male, M Age = 32.07 years) Veterans and Reservist students who have attended Midwest universities in the United States. Results suggested that participants who are younger demonstrated higher levels of Lack of Readiness. Main effects for both level of deployment and combat experience were statistically nonsignificant. The findings from this study suggested that military students may experience similar levels of difficulties as their civilian counterparts.