Date of Award

Summer 7-8-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Doctoral Studies

First Advisor

Phillips, Julia

Second Advisor

Stead, Graham

Third Advisor

Lewandowski, Cathleen

Subject Headings

Counseling Psychology, Education, Psychology


Supervision in the field of psychology is an essential practice that has significant implications for a supervisee’s success in their academic program, therapist identity and ability to become an independent professional. This study explored the perceptions of supervisees of how multiculturally competent they believed their supervisor to be and how much they believed their supervisor utilized feminist principles in supervision. Limited research has suggested that the modality of supervision and competence of a supervisor can be important factors in determining supervisee outcomes. Important to the current study were supervisee counseling self-efficacy, client empowerment, active commitment, and satisfaction in supervision. Data was collected using a quantitative online survey. The sample included 155 participants who self-identified as women, aged 18 and older, and were enrolled in either a master’s level or doctoral level counseling or clinical psychology program. Canonical correlation analysis revelated a significant correlation between supervisor variables of feminist supervision and multicultural competence with the supervisee variables of satisfaction in supervision, client empowerment, and active commitment. Results supported the importance of clinical supervision in supervisee outcomes. This research has advanced the field of education and training in psychology by exploring the importance of supervisor variables in supervisee development.