Date of Award


Degree Type



Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs

First Advisor

Toman, Sarah

Subject Headings

Psychotherapists -- Supervision of, Supervisors -- Attitudes, Therapeutic alliance, supervisory alliance counterproductive events trainee self-efficacy


The supervisory alliance between psychology trainee and clinical supervisor plays an important role in the growth and development of the psychologist in training. There are numerous factors that relate to the supervisory alliance. Previous research has indicated that both positive and negative supervision experiences occur during supervision and they act to influence the supervisory working alliance. A counterproductive event is an example of a negative supervision event in which the trainee perceives that an experience in supervision either harmed or hindered his or her growth and development as a therapist. Because counterproductive events regularly happen during a supervision experience, it is important to investigate how the strength of the supervisory alliance relates to counterproductive events. In addition it is important to investigate how the counterproductive event and state of the working alliance relate to the self-efficacy of the trainee. The current study investigated whether counterproductive events that occurred in clinical supervision related to the supervisory working alliance as perceived by the trainee. Additionally the study explored whether there was a relationship between the supervisory working alliance, the presence of counterproductive events, and the trainee's level of self-efficacy. This study utilized a quantitative research design and also included a larger sample than the qualitative research designs used in previous research