Date of Award


Degree Type



Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Kocher, Walter

Subject Headings

Government purchasing -- Environmental aspects -- United States, Green products -- Purchasing -- United States, Sustainability, NASA Glenn Research Center, Environmentally preferable purchasing plus, EPP+, Environmentally preferable purchasing


EPP+ or Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Plus is a Environmentally Preferable Purchasing program with incorporated a unique Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) scoring system which implemented at NASA, Glenn Research Center. A protocol has been developed to aid in selecting among products based on principles of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The protocol has been developed for use at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) but is intended to benefit anyone wishing to make sustainable purchasing decision. The protocol was designed as a web-based application which evaluates the life cycle factors, affirmative procurements, price, and performance of products that impact or benefit the environment and human health. There were 2 parts in the development of the EPP+ protocol. The first part was the development of product scoring system guidelines. All products are to be scored using a numerical rating system for each value. A numeric-based rating system has been developed by applying the priorities of the environmental protection and management policies for the purchase of products for GRC. These rating are then multiplied by a weighting factor which is a numeric value between 0 and 1.0. During the product evaluation process, weighting factors are again set according to the importance and priorities set by the Environmental Management Office (EMO). Second part was the development of the EPP+ computer software or protocol ( format). This protocol produces a score for a product based on a series of ratings and weighting factors given by the expert user. Following the same sequence of operation, various products can be scored and compared, and a list can be prepared for the products that qualify as environmentally preferable products. The lists of products are intended to be offered to contractors and other GRC personnel for their applications. Since the product score is a numeric value, it is easy for a non-expert person to understand and compare with some other products, rathe