Date of Award


Degree Type



Urban Studies

First Advisor

Alexander, Jennifer

Subject Headings

Public administration -- Botswana, Public institutions -- Botswana -- Administration, Performance -- Management, Botswana -- Politics and government -- 1966-, Public sector reforms, Organizational culture, Performance management, Botswana, Electronic books. local


Although public sector reforms have been embraced voluntarily in Botswana, no attempt has been made by scholars and practioners to assess the effect of such interventions and their relationship with the culture that shapes and influences people's behaviour within public organizations. The evaluation of programs and policies formulated and implemented since the attainment of political independence in September 1966 rarely makes reference to the manner in which organizational culture affects the attainment of goals and objectives specified under such interventions. Hence, this study sought to understand the relationship between public sector reforms undertaken in Botswana, particularly Performance Management System (PMS) and organizational culture as well as assess factors that support and impede the implementation of PMS with a view to indicating how change is managed within government departments. Four government departments in Botswana were studied using a case study research methodology. The study findings indicate that the culture of public servants has changed following the introduction of PMS. The majority of respondents stated that a culture of planning and accountability for one's performance and actions is getting entrenched. This is because PMS makes it mandatory for officers to plan and do their work in a systematic and organized manner through preparation and execution of Performance Development Plans as well as upholding departmental values as reflected in the vision and mission statements. On the negative side, the study findings indicate that a top-down approach was adopted at the planning stage thus resulting in lack of ownership of the reform. This problem is compounded by the exclusion of Industrial class employees, failure to provide promised incentives and inadequate understanding of PMS concepts and tools by some of the officers tasked with the responsibility of driving it