Date of Award


Degree Type



Chemical and Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Halliburton, Sandra

Subject Headings

Tomography, Three-dimensional imaging in medicine, Dual-energy CT (DECT), C-arm CT


Novel minimally invasive surgeries are used for treating cardiovascular diseases and are performed under 2D fluoroscopic guidance with a C-arm system. 3D multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) images are routinely used for preprocedural planning and postprocedural follow-up. For preprocedural planning, the ability to integrate the MDCT with fluoroscopic images for intraprocedural guidance is of clinical interest. Registration may be facilitated by rotating the C-arm to acquire 3D C-arm CT images. This dissertation describes the development of optimal scan and contrast parameters for C-arm CT in 6 swine. A 5-s ungated C-arm CT acquisition during rapid ventricular pacing with aortic root injection using minimal contrast (36 mL), producing high attenuation (1226), few artifacts (2.0), and measurements similar to those from MDCT (p>0.05) was determined optimal. 3D MDCT and C-arm CT images were registered to overlay the aortic structures from MDCT onto fluoroscopic images for guidance in placing the prosthesis. This work also describes the development of a methodology to develop power equation (R2>0.998) for estimating dose with C-arm CT based on applied tube voltage. Application in 10 patients yielded 5.48┬▒177 2.02 mGy indicating minimal radiation burden. For postprocedural follow-up, combinations of non-contrast, arterial, venous single energy CT (SECT) scans are used to monitor patients at multiple time intervals resulting in high cumulative radiation dose. Employing a single dual-energy CT (DECT) scan to replace two SECT scans can reduce dose. This work focuses on evaluating the feasibility of DECT imaging in the arterial phase. The replacement of non-contrast and arterial SECT acquisitions with one arterial DECT acquisition in 30 patients allowed generation of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images with 31 dose savings. Aortic luminal attenuation in VNC (32┬▒177 2 HU) was similar to true non-contrast images (35┬▒177 4 HU) indicating presence of unattenuated blood. To improve discrimination between ca