Date of Award


Degree Type



Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

First Advisor

Little, Kathleen

Subject Headings

Creatine, Doping in sports, Athletes -- Drug use, Creatine, Creatine use, NCAA athletes, DIII athletes


Athletes often seek out ergogenic aids to improve sport performance. Creatine is one of the most popular supplements consumed among young athletes. At the Division III level of collegiate sports, certain perceptions or influences have led to or have sustained creatine use in this athletic population and needs to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of creatine supplementation among Division III collegiate athletes and to summarize educational resources, attitudes, and rationale for its use across gender and sport. In the Spring of 2007, 61 Division III varsity athletes football (39/61), basketball (10/61), baseball (4/61), soccer (3/61), swimming (2/61), track and field athletes (2/61), and wrestling (1/61) representing John Carroll University, Cleveland, OH completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding creatine supplementation. The subjects (female, n = 6 male, n = 55) ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (mean = 20.6 years). Athletes that admitted to current creatine use completed a Likert scaled assessment of attitude toward creatine use. Survey results revealed that 16.4 (10/61) of athletes were current users of creatine while 42.6 (26/61) athletes admitted to past creatine use. Males were more likely than females to be current users of creatine. Of the total athletes sampled (61), only 10 (16.4 ) admitted to current use, and all 10 were football players. The earliest initiation of creatine supplementation was reported at 15 years. Trends in the data suggested that male athletes participating in contact-collision based sports are more likely than females to use creatine as an ergogenic aid to enhance performance. Participants received the bulk of their creatine information from two reported sources: the internet and GNC stores, as opposed to athletic support staff (ie. physician, strength coach, dietitian, athletic trainer, etc.). Athletes need accurate information about ergogenic supplements and their associated risks including proper dosing and instruction