Date of Award


Degree Type




First Advisor

Shelton, Robert

Subject Headings

Cleveland (Ohio) -- History -- 19th century, New England -- Social life and customs -- History -- 19th century, Cleveland, urban history, industrialization, nineteenth century, New England, neighborhoods


In 1850 the village and township of Newburgh, six miles southeast of Cleveland was a farming community sparsely populated by families who were predominantly of New England descent. Within two decades several iron and steel mills had been erected just north of the village, while a large state hospital for the mentally ill had been built just south of the village. The population of the area increased dramatically as English, Welsh, Irish, and finally Polish immigrants arrived to work in the mills. In 1873 the village of Newburgh and much of the surrounding township was annexed by the city of Cleveland, becoming the Eighteenth Ward, nicknamed "The Iron Ward." This thesis examines the lives of the Yankee farmers and their families as they adjusted to the striking physical and demographic changes wrought by industrialization, urbanization and immigration, covering the transitional period between 1850 and 1882. The work is divided into seven chapters, including the introduction and the conclusion. Chapter 2 describes the geographic advantages that made Newburgh a healthy alternative to the swampy land in Cleveland, the topographical features that encouraged agricultural pursuits and eventually attracted industrial pursuits, and the man-made structures erected for business and community functions. Chapter 3 examines the growth of businesses the early businesses that supported the farming community, the coming of the iron mills and the asylum, and the emergence of a small central business district that offered goods and services to the growing population. Chapter four examines the influence of faith and religion, chronicling the growth of the three predominant Protestant churches and the intersection of religion and middle-class values. Chapter 5 looks at social and community life, including both formal voluntary associations and informal community ties. Finally Chapter 6 examines the ways in which the Yankee residents of Newburgh continued to be influenced by, and identify with, their New England roots, and how they a

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