Date of Award
Education and Human Services
Rowing, Rowing -- Physiological aspects, Energy metabolism -- Measurement -- Case studies, Rowing, Power Output, Energy Expenditure, Upper Body, Lower Body, Rowing Stroke, Rowing Ergometer, Gender, Training
Purpose: This study examined energy expenditure and power output by the upper and lower body, as well as gender, and training differences, using the Concept II Model E rowing ergometer. It was hypothesized that (1) there will be greater energy expenditure and power output with the lower body as compared to the upper body, (2) there will be a significantly greater upper and lower body energy expenditure and power output for males in the rowing stroke, and (3) there will be a significantly greater lower body energy expenditure and power output for trained rowers. Methods: Subjects included 14 males (7 trained, 7 untrained) and 14 females (7 trained, 7 untrained). Test 1 had participants rowing using the full body a 1000 meter all out row was performed. Test 2 had the pull-chain from the row handle directly attached to the seat of the Concept II to isolate only lower body rowing input. Rowers then completed a 1000m row using the lower body at the same cadence of the full body row. To determine the contribution of the upper body, the results of test 2 were subtracted from test 1. Power output, energy expenditure, row time, distance per stroke, blood lactate, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare upper vs lower body, and independent t-tests were used to analyze gender and training effects. Results: Upper body power output (188.6 ± 60.5) was significantly greater than lower body (60.2 ± 28.5) power output (p=.001). Lower body energy expenditure (5.5 ± 4.5) was significantly greater than upper body (8.5 ± 3.8) energy expenditure (p=.043). There was a significant upper/lower by gender interaction for power, with upper body power output significantly greater in males (p=.018). There was a significant upper/lower by training interaction for both power and energy expenditure, with lower body power output (p=.008) and lower body energy expenditure (p=.021) significantly greater for trained. Conclusion: Upper versus lower body differences show
Jones, Davon I., "Upper Versus Lower Body Contribution to the Rowing Stroke" (2011). ETD Archive. 726.