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Faculty Advisors

Dr. Espy, Deborah


In the health care field, doctors and researchers rely on objective information to make conclusions about a person's health. However, concepts such as pain and balance rely on subjective information to properly assist a patient. The key innovations regarding the assessment of pain began in 1939, starting as a list of 44 words sorted into five groups. Now, the pain scale comes in many forms, from a numeric score ranging 0-10 (Numeric Rating scale or NRS), to a scale of faces with appropriate descriptors with it (Visual analog scale, or VAS). Such as pain, balance is subjective, and what may be challenging to one-person in regard to balance may not be the same for another. There is no validating rating scale of balance exercise intensity scale for older adults, and ways to measure balance intensity for older adults does not exist. In this study, participants will use video games and balance training surfaces to be assessed on their balance using a rate perceived ability scale, determining the validity of the RPS scale. A consistent and valid way to rate balance exercise intensity would help individuals with balance challenges, and will help professionals, such as physical therapists, help their patients.

Publication Date



College of Sciences and Health Professions


Health Sciences


Medicine and Health Sciences

Methods to Increase Efficacy of Pro-Active Balance Training Among Older Adults