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Faculty Advisors

Huang H.C., Grace; Lam T.C., Eddie


What roles do parents play in fostering children's academic success in school? There is a general consensus that confirms the importance of parenting styles and practices on children's academic performance (e.g., Pinquart, 2015). However, there is a lack of up-to-date systematic parenting scales with acceptable validity and reliability. For this reason, it limits our understanding of parenting related studies in the current context. Developing a questionnaire is critical to conduct cross diverse comparisons which would broaden the generalizability of the related research. Adopting the review of literature research approach, the purpose of this study was to develop a scale that contains essential elements of parenting styles and practices. Using this instrument tool, the goal would be to examine the relationship between parenting practices and children's academic performance. Through a thorough literature review, the Parenting Styles and Practices Scale (PSPS) was developed. The PSPS includes four factors: (a) parental expectations, (b) autonomy, (c) discipline, and (d) parental involvement in education. Each factor includes 10 variables. The next step would be to examine the psychometric properties of the PSPS on a sample. The ultimate goal is to implement the PSPS to a wider population and make the scale available for adoption in the parenting research community.

Publication Date



College of Education and Human Servicescation


Teacher Ed/ HHP/TE


Education | Medicine and Health Sciences

Development of the Parenting Style and Practice Scale (PSPS) in examining parenting practices and children's academic performance