Recently, the legal bastion of "fairness" and "fault" in fraud and decit cases has been assaulted by courts, administrative agencies, and legal scholars. The walls are still standing, but here and there cracks have begun to appear and the words status and duty are no longer obscene in the field of seller's liability for false and misleading representations. A thorough study would require an analysis of all the environmental factors in a group-institutionalized society and also the interests the courts are protecting. Thispaper will touch on judicial protection of the consumer's interest in physical integrity, and the protection of consumer economic expectations where these interests have been harmed by the false representations.
William J. Moore, Group Fraud: Fault or Duty, 13 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 238 (1964)