This article will discuss the question of whether third parties may bring an action for damages against those who deprive another of his civil rights. The related question, resulting from the second cause of action in the Napolitano case, of whether one may recover for the mental anguish caused by the denial of another's civil rights will also be considered. Although the question is concerned with damage actions, cases in which injunctive relief was asked are helpful in studying the principle involved. Relief has been granted in these cases much more readily than in damage actions, possibly because the equitable relief is easier to apply.
Robert M. Didrick, Third Party Plaintiffs in Civil Rights Damage Actions, 17 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 496 (1968)