Hospital immunity in negligence and other torts of agents and employees is disappearing steadily. The course of decisions in many states has been consistently in the direction of elimination of "charitable" immunity of hospitals. Seeking another line of defense, hospital administrators have re-examined the parties generally involved in a medical negligence action-patient, physician and hospital. Hospital administrators realized quickly that in order to remain free from general negligence liability, the main onus of tort responsibility would have to be shifted to the physician (or even the nurse) whenever and wherever possible.
Carl H. Miller, Malpractice Used as a Hospital Defense, 10 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 1 (1961)