It is obvious that pain and suffering are inherent elements in almost any bodily injury, but the problem facing plaintiff's counsel is to bring to the realization of the jury its extent in a particular case. At trial various types of demonstrative evidence are used to effect this end. In recent years attorneys have used the "mathematical formula" (or "per diem") technique in their final arguments to the jury as another means of obtaining "adequate" personal injury awards.
Doris Hauth, Per Diem Argument of Pain and Suffering Damages, 11 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 495 (1962)