Is a carrier liable for a shipment it did not receive? What is the situation when a carrier receives only part of the goods from the preceding carrier, or when it receives them all but in damaged condition? How is the carrier's liability affected if the damage is latent or patent? Discussion of these questions will be limited to shipments in interstate commerce and in three basic areas: (1) carrier's common law liability,1 (2) effect of federal enactments, and (3) establishment of a prima facie case.
W. David Alderson, Connecting Carrier's Liability for Loss or Damage to Shipments, 13 Clev.-Marshall L. Rev. 332 (1964)