This article seeks to illuminate the difficulties in finding causation between cancer development and toxic substances. Section II gives a brief history of cancer in society as well as an introduction to the biological cancer mechanism, and highlights our general lack of knowledge about cancer. Section III takes a brief look at some occupations and environmental factors that have been suggested causes of cancer. Section IV discusses in depth the problems with establishing association between toxic substances and cancer, especially in establishing causal significance. Section V analyzes how the epidemiology of disease and toxic substances is treated by courts. Section VI takes a quick look at the Bendectin birth defects case, and Section VII looks at radiation exposure cases. And in Section VIII , the authors turn to look at various legislative proposals that have been suggested to handle the issue.


Symposium: Toxic Waste and Environmental Law