Date of Award


Degree Type



Education and Human Services

First Advisor

Galletta, Anne

Subject Headings

Education, Urban -- United States, Shorthand -- Study and teaching -- United States, Visual communication in art, Art -- United States, African American artists, PAR critical theory indigenous paradigm art social justice art and activism creativity alternate realities knowledge construction visual stenography urban education Black education Black artists Blask history


How Black artists-othered and positioned at the margins of "civilization" in the United States-construct knowledge, context, and historical memory is informative to urban education research and policy. The exploration of this reflects the wisdom of an African proverb that others will tell the story of the struggle should it not first be told by those who live it. To create reciprocity between participants and the researcher, this study employed participatory methods and critical analysis of data from interview sessions, observation, works of art, journal reflections, and information from existing studies and artist documentaries. The study uncovers an approach to the creative process-a form of visual stenography fusing art, inquiry, and activism while considering the historical, social, and ideological context. Findings suggest art may be employed as a method, an indigenous paradigm countering the threat of being scripted into history and disrupting unequal research hierarchies and social relations

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