Date of Award


Degree Type



Education and Human Services

First Advisor

Sparks, Kenneth

Subject Headings

Swimming, Physical education and training, potentiation, swimming, power rack, sprinting


Purpose: This study examined post-activation potentiation (PAP) and its effect on performance during sprint swimming. Following resistance exercise, the muscles are in a potentiated, as well as a fatigued state. Potentiation dissipates faster than fatigue, creating a window of opportunity for possible performance enhancement. It was hypothesized that (1) there will be an improvement in sprint performance as a result of a PAP loading protocol, and (2) that there will be a significantly greater improvement in males as a result of a PAP loading protocol. Methods: Subjects were 30 members (males, N=15 females, N=15) of the Cleveland State University Swim Team. Subjects performed two swim trials in a randomized order. The control trial involved a standard 900 meter freestyle swim warm up, followed by 6 minutes rest, followed by a maximal 100 meter freestyle swim effort. The PAP trial involved the same protocol however a PAP loading protocol was completed prior to the 6 minutes rest. The PAP loading protocol involved the subjects completing four maximal 10 meter swims at a 1 minute interval while attached to a resistive Power Rack. The load (L) for the swims was derived by the formula where LBM is the subjects'lean body mass and t is their best 100 meter freestyle time. Fifty meter splits were also analyzed, as well as blood lactates. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between trials, as well as compare the gender response. Results: There was a significant improvement in 100 meter freestyle time (.54sec) for the PAP trial versus the control trial (p=.029). Both males and females improved during the PAP trial compared to the control trial for each performance measure: 100 meter, first 50 meter split, and last 50 meter, but there was no significant gender interaction (p=.647). Conclusion: PAP has been shown to enhance 100 meter freestyle performance in collegiate sprint swimmers. Males and females have shown a similar response to a PAP loading stimulus, although other methods for loading sho

Included in

Education Commons