When one thinks about the use of genetic information by third parties for nonmedical purposes, one of the first things that comes to mind is the question of how the third party can gain access to the information. There are three main ways. First, and most importantly, the third party may obtain records developed in the clinical setting. In other words, if someone wants a job or insurance, that person may be required to sign a release authorizing the third party to access those records. Second, the genetic records might be obtained through a genetic data bank. Third, the third party may actually perform genetic testing itself or ask questions that elicit genetic information indirectly through family histories. I will address the following eight nonmedical uses of genetic information: (1) identification, (2) employment, (3) insurance, (4) commercial transactions, (5) domestic relations, (6) education, (7) criminal justice, and (8) tort litigation.
Mark A. Rothstein, The Use of Genetic Information for Nonmedical Purposes, 9 J.L. & Health 109 (1994-1995)