Michael Cikraji



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During Cleveland’s Great Depression grew the first seeds of American Nazism. The city fostered an explicitly Nazi German-American Bund, a covert Silvershirt Legion detachment and prominent diplomatic agents from the Third Reich. Festooned with photos and meticulously documented, this book examines the timeless questions of American allegiance, the responsibilities of democratic governance, the security threats of “Un-American” activities, and the passions, motivations and dreams of American immigrants. In the most unlikely of places, here is a case-study true story of the fascinating, bewildering and terrifying rise of American Nazism.


ISBN 13: 978-1-936323-51-7 ISBN 10: 1-936323-51-6

Publication Date



MSL Academic Endeavors


Cleveland, Ohio


Cleveland, Nazism, Bund, Silvershirts, Nazi, Fascism, Ohio, Propaganda, Ford, Kapp


Cultural History | European History | History | United States History


The Nazis of Cleveland was expanded from a manuscript submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master of Arts Degree in History, Cleveland State University, December, 1999.

Copyright Statement

This electronic edition contains the complete text as found in the print edition of the manuscript. Original copyright to this book is reserved by the author(s). Organizations and individuals seeking to use these materials outside the bounds of fair use or copyright law must obtain permission directly from the appropriate copyright holder. For more information about fair use, see the Michael Schwartz Library's copyright guide: Any permitted use of this edition must credit the Cleveland State University Michael Schwartz Library and MSL Academic Endeavors as the source.

The History of the Cleveland Nazis: 1933 - 1945