Skin-to-Skin Contact Diminishes Pain From Hepatitis B Vaccine Injection in Healthy Full-Term Neonates
Purpose: This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that skin-to-skin contact (SSC) would reduce hepatitis B vaccine injection pain in full-term neonates. Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT ). Sample: Thirty-six mother-;neonate dyads were randomly assigned to SSC or control groups. Main Outcomes: Cry time (CT ), behavioral state (BSt), and heart rate (HR ) were measured throughout the 16-minute protocol. HR and BSt were measured every 30 seconds; CT was recorded continuously. Results: SSC neonates cried less compared with controls (23 vs 32 seconds during injection; 16 vs 72 seconds during recovery), reached calmer BSts sooner (M = 2.8 vs M = 6.5 time points), and trended toward more rapid HR decrease. SSC as described was safe and effective and merits further testing.
Kostandy, Raouth R.; Anderson, Gene; and Good, Marion, "Skin-to-Skin Contact Diminishes Pain From Hepatitis B Vaccine Injection in Healthy Full-Term Neonates" (2013). Nursing Faculty Publications. 61.