Survival Analysis and Prognostic Factors of the Carcinoma of Gallbladder

Zainab Feroz, University of Allahabad
Priyanka Gautam, University of Allahabad
Sonia Tewari, Kamala Nehru Memorial Hospital
Girish C. Shukla, Cleveland State University
Munish Kumar, University of Allahabad


Background: The present study aims to evaluate the survival status of patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) and explore the prognostic factors for the improvement and preventions.

Methods: The study consists of 176 patients with clinically diagnosed gallbladder cancer; the study was conducted between 2019 and 2021 registered at Kamala Nehru Memorial Cancer Hospital, Prayagraj, India. The survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method; survival rate difference was analyzed by log-rank test, prognosis factors; and hazard ratio for mortality outcomes was estimated using Cox regression method.

Results: The overall median survival time of patients was 5 months with the 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates of 24.4%, 8.5%, and 4.5%, respectively. The 3-year survival for patients with jaundice was 2.9%, liver infiltration (4.2%), gall-stones (0.8%), and with advanced tumor grade (1.4%). Elderly GBC patients had lower survival rates (3.8%), while the 3-year overall survival for patients residing in urban areas dropped to zero. No patients in the tumor stage (T3/T4) and with distance metastasis stage survived in 3 years, while only 1.1% of patients with advanced nodal stage survived. On receiving surgery and radiation therapy, the 3-year survival rate increased to 19.5% and 35%, respectively. The results of multivariate analysis showed that urban region (HR = 1.568, p = 0.040), gallstone or not (1.571, p = 0.049), N stage (HR = 1.468, p = 0.029), and M stage (HR = 2.289, p < 0.0001) were independent risk factors for prognosis, while surgery or not (HR = 0.573, p = 0.030) was the protective factor for the prognosis of GBC.

Conclusion: The overall survival of GBC in the Gangetic belt is poor. The geographical region of patients, gallstones, and N and M stage was the risk factors for prognosis, while surgery or not was the protective factor for the prognosis of GBC.