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Analytica Chimica Acta


Peroxynitrite (ONOO−) constitutes a major cytotoxic agent, implicated in a host of pathophysiological conditions, thereby stimulating a tremendous interest in evaluating its role as an oxidant in vivo. Some of the detection methods for peroxynitrite include oxidation of fluorescent probes, EPR spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry, and probe nitration; however, these are more difficult to apply for real-time quantification due to their inherent complexity. The electrochemical detection of peroxynitrite is a simpler and more convenient technique, but the best of our knowledge there are only few papers to date studying its electrochemical signature, or reporting amperometric microsensors for peroxynitrite. Recently, we have reported the use of layered composite films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) as a platform for amperometric measurement of peroxynitrite. The main goal herein is to investigate the intrinsic catalytic role of hemin electropolymerized thin films on carbon electrodes in oxidative detection of peroxynitrite. The electrocatalytic oxidation of peroxynitrite is characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The catalytic current increased as a function of peroxynitrite's concentration, with a peak potential shifting positively with peroxynitrite's concentration. The catalytic efficiency decreased as the scan rate increased, and the peak potential of the catalytic oxidation was found to depend on pH. We show that optimized hemin-functionalized carbon electrodes can be used as simple platforms for peroxinitrite detection and quantification. We report dose–response amperometry as an electroanalytical determination of this analyte on hemin films and we contrast the intrinsic hemin catalytic role with its performance in the case of the PEDOT–hemin as a composite matrix. Finally, we include some work extending the use of simple hemin films for peroxynitrite determination on carbon microfiber electrodes in a flow system.


This research is funded in part by The National Science Foundation (to MB, Grant CHE-0848820), by an FRD grant from Ohio Board of Regents, and by funds from Cleveland State University, and by the National Scientific Research Agency (to SFP, Project PNII 184-2011, UEFISCDI-ANCS).







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