Glycan microarray has become a powerful high-throughput tool for examining binding interactions of carbohydrates with the carbohydrate binding biomolecules like proteins, enzymes, antibodies etc. It has shown great potential for biomedical research and applications, such as antibody detection and profiling, vaccine development, biomarker discovery, and drug screening. Most glycan microarrays were made with monovalent glycans immobilized directly onto the array surface via either covalent or non-covalent bond, which afford a multivalent glycans in two dimensional (2D) displaying. A variety of glyco-macroligands have been developed to mimic multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions and biomedical research and applications. Recently, a number of glyco-macroligands have been explored for glycan microarray fabrication, in particular to mimick the three dimensional (3D) multivalent display of cell surface carbohydrates. This review highlights these recent developments of glyco-macroligand-based microarrays, predominantly, novel glycan microarrays with glyco-macroligands like glycodendrimers, glycopolymers, glycoliposomes, neoglycoproteins, and glyconanoparticles with the effort in controlling the density and orientation of glycans on the array surface, which facilitate both their binding specificity and affinity and thus the high performance of glycan microarrays.
Narla, S. N.; Nie, H.; Li, Y.; Sun, X. Multi-dimensional glycan microarrays with glyco-macroligands. Glycoconj. J. 2015, 32, 483-495.
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-015-9580-z