Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thrombin activated factor Va (factor VIIa, residues 1-709 and 1546-2196) has an apparent dissociation constant (Kd,app) for factor Xa within prothrombinase of approximately 0.5 nM. A protease (NN) purified from the venom of the snake Naja nigricollis nigricollis, cleaves human factor V at Asp697, Asp1509, and Asp1514 to produce a molecule (factor VNN) that is composed of a Mr 100,000 heavy chain (amino acid residues 1-696) and a Mr 80,000 light chain (amino acid residues 1509/1514-2196). Factor VNN, has a Kd,app for factor Xa of 4 nm and reduced clotting activity. Cleavage of factor VIIa by NN at Asp697 results in a cofactor that loses approximately 60-80% of its clotting activity. An enzyme from Russell's viper venom (RVV) cleaves human factor V at Arg1018 and Arg1545 to produce a Mr 150,000 heavy chain and Mr 74,000 light chain (factor VRVV, residues 1-1018 and 1546-2196). The RVV species has affinity for factor Xa and clotting activity similar to the thrombin-activated factor Va. Cleavage of factor VNN at Arg1545 by alpha-thrombin (factor VNN/IIa) or RVV (factor VNN/RVV) leads to enhanced affinity of the cofactor for factor Xa (Kd,app approximately 0.5 nM). A synthetic peptide containing the last 13 residues from the heavy chain of factor Va (amino acid sequence 697-709, D13R) was found to be a competitive inhibitor of prothrombinase with respect to prothrombin. The peptide was also found to specifically interact with thrombin-agarose. These data demonstrate that 1) cleavage at Arg1545 and formation of the light chain of factor VIIa is essential for high affinity binding and function of factor Xa within prothrombinase and 2) a binding site for prothrombin is contributed by amino acid residues 697-709 of the heavy chain of the cofactor.
Kalafatis, Michael; Beck, Daniel O.; and Mann, Kenneth G., "Structural Requirements for Expression of Factor VA Activity" (2003). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 617.
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